LAYERS OF TECHNIQUE AND INTERVENTION - GIOVANNI BARONZIO’S CRUCIFIXION: TECHNIQUE, MATERIALS AND INTERVENTIONS
GIOVANNI BARONZIO’S CRUCIFIXION
TECHNIQUE, MATERIALS AND INTERVENTIONS
The technical examination of Giovanni Baronzio’s (also known as Giovanni da Rimini) Crucifixion, dated in the second quarter of the 14th century concentrated on: (1) the identification of the original materials and techniques, (2) the evaluation of the work’s state of preservation, and, (3) the integration of non-destructive analytical techniques to study its complex history of interventions.
The application of X-Ray Radiography (XRR), digital microscopy, Ultraviolet (UV) and Infrared (IR) imaging, Fiber-Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) provided a comprehensive technical study of the small in size painting (45,4 x 26,9). Results confirmed the consistency of original pigments with those used by Italian Renaissance artists on panel paintings: lead white, earth pigments, cinnabar, minium, carbon and iron black, copper green and blue, gold leaf as well as the use of the estofado technique (the artist scratches through a paint layer to reveal another layer of contrasting color or material). The wooden surface was prepared with a thick layer of calcite. Furthermore, results identified three major phases of intervention such as retouching and overpainting due to the deterioration of large areas of the original composition.